PREFACE The moral development of the Filipino youth is very crucial. Changes in society in terms of social responsibility, honesty, integrity, and justice need to be hastened. Regime after regime has come and gone but the Filipino has not taken stock himself and decisively say, I am for God, therefore, all my actions should support this conviction of mine. This fourth year Values Education Book recognizes the wisdom of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports to embark on a cognitive learning of values leading to the affective domain ending in the values being concretized in daily living. The main concept of spirituality that would result in something concrete to guide the Filipino is, Spirituality, religiosity is faith embodied in and expressed through culture.
(Jose M. de Mesa, 1991) Faith is the response a Filipino makes to the gift of life and love that he has received from the Almighty. The book starts from helping the students know themselves and their capacity for spiritual growth. The opportunities for this spirituality to grow are also presented. He is given the joy to know that his culture is very rich in leading him to achieve the fullness of his being a man. Concepts to build a man, a community, a society and a world characterized with the values of truth, justice, unity and peace are presented. Nationalism is also developed not as separate from spirituality but integral in the development of the morality of a person. We all need to forge our minds, hearts and deeds to reach the destiny, which the Almighty has for our country, our world and our fellowmen.
This book is a small contribution to our nation’s ardent desire for moral recovery and the big leap to hurdle it is your conviction to grow in all aspects of your humanity – the most important aspects morally and spiritually. The competencies the Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) has set for the Values Education is the basis of all the concepts and strategies presented in this book. From the Author UNIT I The adolescent lives his life according to the philosophies he has developed. Going through the lessons leads the student to know more of himself. Knowing his self who has always been loved and cared for by God is a strong means of developing growth in spirituality. Positive and negative ways are discovered in the activities.
The identification of the reasons for his way of life and seeing the source of all of them are always helpful to grow into a self – fulfilled person. Spirituality anchored in the trust and love of God develops a self who does not take the pains to improve and grow according to God’s plan for everyone. LESSON 1 MATURITY AND SPIRITUALITY INTRODUCTION A person’s spirituality grows just like any part of his physical self. JOURNEYING INTO ONESELF Check the statements that show a maturing personality. 1. I am the center of all attention.
2. My friend’s opinions matter. 3. I should be attended to always. 4.
My opinions are always the best. 5. Others have to be heard also. 6. If it does not satisfy me it is not good. 7.
I must always be rewarded for the good thing I do. 8. I feel good being called a good student. 9. I have to do my share in society.
Did you check items 2, 5, and 9? Why these items show someone growing in both spiritual and moral aspects of life? Why do you think you checked them? Why did you not check them? Are you satisfied that you haven’t grown much in your spiritual and moral development? Can you improve on them? How? MORAL AND SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT (Adapted from Piaget & Langer-Werner and applied to Kohlberg’s Stage of Moral Development) An interaction between the individual’s structural capacities, the factors in the environment and experiences that lead to moral development. INNATE STRUCTURE STAGE 1 Experience ME ALONE Accommodation/ But I need others for many things reward/punishment Feedback Adaptation STAGE 2 Ex ME FIRST But I need more physical things; I need I give you favors, and I expect you acceptance to give back in return Acc/Fb Ad STAGE 3 Ex GOOD BOY/NICE GIRL But there are conflicting claims of meeting expectations and winning different groups acceptance Acc/Fb Ad STAGE 4 Ex LAW AND ORDER But is the law always morally right? – law/rules duty; doing my share in – can the rules always respond to all society situations that may arise? – systematized: larger group as a (Acc/Fb) – are institutions always faithful to social system original inspiration and responsive to the need for change? STAGE 5 Ex SOCIAL CONTRACT But is the majority always right? – democracy/change/adaptation by (Acc/Fb) – what criteria can be used for formu- majority lating right and wrong in society? – rational open discussion for majority consensus STAGE 6 UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES – the right = personal conscience guided by fundamental values always and universally valid because of their intrinsic worth. – criterion: what respects dignity and rights of the human person – JUSTICE = the end-goal of moral development The early yeas in life are characterized by a behavior motivated by the ME ALONE or ME FIRST attitude. In a later stage in life or in the intermediate grades, one’s actions maybe motivated by the Good Boy/Nice Girl, meaning one does what brings appreciation or approval from others and doing away with actions that bring disapproval or reprimand from others. A maturing moral and spiritual self is slowly observed in the LAW and ORDER stage.
The individual bases his action on what is considered right or wrong in the family, school, community, country or in the world. He tries to do his share in society. But sometimes the laws are not anymore sufficient to be the measure of what is right or wrong. This is because there can be a wide range of choices to be made. To choose the best action takes a higher basis for choice, more than laws or regulations.
A truly matured individual reaches the stage of Universal Principles upon which to anchor his decision, choices and actions. The right, now is based on a personal conscience which is guided by fundamental values. These values are good in themselves especially because they lead a person to what God, Allah and the Supreme Being teach so that he develops into what he should become. A person’s life as intended by God is to have a dignity of a human being. The criteria or the measure of what is fundamentally a universal value is whether it respects the dignity and rights of human person.
The end goal of moral and spiritual development is justice. Justice means reaching a point where respect is given as well as sufficient for everyone in all aspects of life. DISCUSSIONS 1. Enumerate some behaviors you have observed that points to a person who is in the following stages: a. Me alone b. Me First c.
Good Boy/Nice Girl 2. Why is Law/Order Stage not enough to guide the spiritual or moral decisions of a person? 3. Why is the social contract limited as a source of guide to one’s choices and actions? 4. Which of these steps would you choose as your guide for your attitudes and behavior? Why? 5. Cite people who have reached Stage 6 in their moral and spiritual development. Give reasons why you have chosen them. ACTIVITY Read: THE SHORTEST WAY by Bro.
Jun Estrella, FSC One day, a rich young man went to a remote Temple and presented to the Master his concern. Although we are rich, and I do not have to work, I am still disillusioned with life and wish to attain enlightenment to be freed from these sufferings. But I have no capacity for sticking long at anything except playing chess. Is there any short way for people like me? There is, said the Master, if you are really determined. The Master then called a certain monk to bring a chessboard and men.
The monk came with the board and the Master setup the men. Oh monk, said the Master, you have vowed obedience to me as your Master, and now I require it of you. You will play a game of chess with this youth, and if you lose I shall cut off your head. If you win I shall cut off the head of this young man. They looked at the Master’s face and saw that he meant it: He would cut off the head of the loser. They began to play.
With opening moves, the youth was already sweating as he played for his life. The chessboard became the whole world; he was completely concentrated on it. Later, as his opponent’s position crumbled, he looked at him. He saw a face of intelligence and honesty, worn with years of austerity and effort. He thought of his own worthless life, and a wave of compassion came over him.
He deliberately made wrong moves, ruining his position and leaving himself defenseless. Then without any warning, the Master upset the board. The two contestants sat motionless and did not know what to do. There is no winner and no loser, said the Master slowly, there is no head to fall here. Only two things are necessary, and he turned to the young man, complete concentration, and compassion.
You have today learned them both. Now stay here for a while and pursue our training in this spirit and your enlightenment is sure. The rich young man did so and got it. 1. In the way how the rich young man talked in the beginning, in what stage of moral and spiritual development was he? 2.
How was he led to the last stage of moral development? Why do you think he learned to be in the last stage? Did you like the way the Master helped him grow to maturity in his moral and spiritual development? Why? CONCEPT FORMATION Universal Principles are the best guides to lead an individual to a path, to what God meant his life to be. A person’s life should be lived with human dignity and respect for human rights. When these two have become guides for actions, then, one has truly started to mature morally and spiritually. APPLICATION 1. Cite occasions wherein you felt happy because you were in stage 6.
Universal principles a. b. c. d. e. 2.
Cite occasions wherein you felt sad, because you were in the stages from 1 to 3. a. b. c. d.
e. 3. Cite ways to grow in your moral and spiritual development. a. b.
c. d. e. EVALUATION Explain in your own words and give a behaviour that will give a better understanding of the words. Meaning Behavior Me Alone – Me First – Good Boy/Nice Girl – Law and Order – Social Contract – Universal Principles – COMMITMENT I will consciously use Universal Principles as my guide to behavior. Give an action for each value: Action 1.
Respect for the dignity of the individual 2. Respect for human rights 3. Justice LESSON 2 THE STRENGTH OF THE INNER SELF INTRODUCTION There is a need to find out where one is in the development of his inner self. Knowing where one is would lead one to improve. After identifying the cause of being in a certain stage where he should not be, he then is able to diagnose himself and set a goal to move ahead or forward in the development of his inner self or his ego.
ERICKSON’S EIGHT AGES OF MAN’S EGO DEVELOPMENT Success brings Failure brings 1st age Early Infancy (birth to about one year) (corollary to Freudian oral sensory stage) Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Result of affection and gratification of Result of consistent abuse, neglect, needs, mutual recognition. deprivation of love; too early or harshness, weaning, autistic isolation. 2nd Age Later Infancy (About ages one to three) (Corollary to Freudian muscular anal stage) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Child views self as person in his own Feels inadequate, doubts self, curtails Right apart from parents but still learning basic skills like walking, dependent. talking, wants to hide inadequacies.
3rd age Early Childhood (About ages four to five years) (corollary to Freudian genital locomotor stage) Initiative vs. Guilt Lively imagination, vigorous reality Lacks spontaneity, infantile jealousy testing, imitates adults, anticipate roles. castration complex, suspicious, evasive, role inhibition. 4th age Middle Childhood (about ages six to eleven years) (corollary to Freudian latency stage) Industry vs. Inferiority Has sense of duty and accomplishment, poor work habits, avoids strong Develops scholastic and social compe- competition, feels doomed to medio- tencies, undertakes real tasks, puts crity; lull before the storm of puberty Fantasy and play in better perspective, may conform as slavish behavior, Learns world tools, task identification. Sense of futility. 5th age Puberty and Adolescence (about ages twelve to twenty years) Ego Identity vs.
Role Confusion Temporal Perspective Time confusion Self-certain Self-conscious Role experimenter Role fixation Sexual polarization Work paralysis Apprenticeship Bisexual confusion Leader-fol …